Runes, Glyphs of Power & Spirit Prior to 200 BCE, certain purely magikal symbols such as the swastika, the cross, and the Sun-wheel were engraved on rocks in Northern Europe for ritual purposes. During the next four hundred years, these proto-runic symbols were adapted into the Germanic Elder Futhark alphabet composed of 24 characters. This is the oldest extant runic system (thus the name “Elder”), […]